The Neolithic Sanctuary at Parța
The Neolithic settlement Parța is located about 15 kilometers south of Timișoara. At its center, a large worship edifice was excavated.
The rectangular sanctuary, 6200 years old, is divided into two rooms. On both sides of the dividing wall, there was an altar table on which some objects were revealed, giving us an image of the rituals that were practiced here.
The room on the east sheltered the double statue representing two characters, a feminine one, with a pronounced belly, and another one that has a realistic bullhead.
In front of the monumental statue there was a door, framed by two columns of clay, ending with a bull's head, the heads being decorated with incised strips and painted in red and yellow.
Next to this door was a second opening, that had at the top a niche in which was discovered a natural-sized idol bust, perforated longitudinally, in which a skull was fixed.
In the corner of the room were discovered many sharps silex blades that were used for ritual sacrifices, which had the purpose of maintaining the goodwill of the divinity, being founded on the idea of primordial sacrifice, of primary killing.
The room on the west was divided into two cassettes of similar size. In the first cassette was a socket of clay located next to a portable fireplace supported by pales. Beside this was discovered a large amount of ash, as well as remnants of the offerings to the gods. On the socket was a bust of an idol decorated on the chest with zigzag incisions, with a vertical perforation in which an animal skull was attached.
In the other cassette there were many pots with offerings. In one of these pots, an amphora with a human face, the phalanx from a man's hand was discovered. Also in this space have been discovered carbonated wheat beans that came from the offerings to the gods, by the fumigation of the grains.
The studies on the Parța Sanctuary show that only in one day of the year, at the time of spring equinox, sunlight penetrated into the eastern room of the sanctuary and positioned itself on the bull's head of the monumental statue. This proves that besides its special ritual role, the sanctuary also played the role of a calendar that marks the beginning of the spring, the season of the regeneration of nature.
The sanctuary was rebuilt within the Banat National Museum, based in Timisoara, Iancu Huniade Square, no. 1, Timis County.
Text and photo source: https://mnab.ro/